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我们先从两者的定义入手来看两者的区别。Compare的定义为：to examine people or things to see how they are similar or different. Contrast的定义为：to compare two or more things to show the difference between them.由定义不难看出前者侧重于找到两个或多个事物的异同,而后者则侧重于它们的不同。
看个例句：It is interesting to compare their situations to ours./It is interesting to contrast their situations to ours.
再看一个引自OXFORD ADBANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY的例子：
There is an obvious contrast between the culture of East and West.
The company lost $7 million in contrast to a profit of $6.2 million a year earlier.
When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.
一般表现为固定搭配错误,如常把provide sb with sth用成provide sb sth; be satisfied with用成be satisfied for等,虽然这样的错误看似无伤大雅，但在考官眼里就是影响顺畅阅读的,当然会影响最终成绩。解决的办法简单而古老：把常见的固定搭配牢记于心,问题自然就解决了。
“to”最常见的用法是以动词不定式符号的形式出现的,所以同学们也已经习惯了“to do”的固定搭配。对于一些如walk to me, to the left等介词to表方向等常见用法一般也不会出现错误。但是对于与动词搭配的介词to就会经常犯错：
如：More and more students have taken to depend on their parents to make decision for them.
这里的‘take to’ means ‘to begin to do sth as a habit’其中‘to’为介词,所以后面只能接名词或相当于名词的词,如动名词。所以黑体处应改为“depending on”。“take to”的另一个常用用法也需要牢记：
He hasn’t taken to his new school. (这里‘take to’ means ‘to start liking sb or sth’)
Prefer A to B中的“to”也是介词,会有prefer doing sth to doing sth/ prefer sth to sth else,“prefer to do sth rather than do sth”中的“to”可是真正的不定式符号。
Be used to doing
Be accustomed to doing
See to doing
Adapt to doing
Adjust to doing
prefer doing sth. to doing sth.
我们知道, think, assume, claim是议论文中常用引出观点的动词。在实际作文中,同学们往往认为几个词的意思是一样的,完全可以代换,所以拿过来就用。甚至还有同学把consider也拿过来与之混用。我们首先还是从定义来看这几个词的不同：
Think： to have opinion or belief about sth.
Assume： to think or accept that sth is true but without having proof of it.
Claim： to say sth is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it.
翻译为“声称”,用这个词往往意味着不赞同紧跟其后的观点,所以很少用作‘I claim that…
Scientist are claiming a breakthrough in the fight against cancer, but in fact, …。
所以‘It is claimed that’通常翻译为“有报道称。。。”。和‘it is reported that ’的区别在于后者翻译为“据报道”,往往代表着作者赞同报告的内容,
Consider： to think about sth carefully, especially in order to make a decision
We are considering buying a new car.
I suggest he continues his study instead of working after graduation from high school.
Recommend, suggest, advise
五、such as与for example的混用
我们知道,在表示举例子的时候,such as与like是完全等同的,如：Wild flowers such as/like orchids and primroses are becoming rare.
但是同学们对于Such as、for example的把握还是不够准确。我们都知道,后者接句子前者接词语表示举例子。于是就有了下面的写法：
There is a similar word in many languages, such as in French and Italian.
这里的such as改为for example为好,因为“in French and Italian”其实是“there is a similar word in French and Italian”的简化,所以要用for example来引出例证。再来看几个类似的例子：
It is possible to combine computer science with other subjects, for example physics.
Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.
Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways or on improving public transportations? There seems to be a difficult problem since many reasons should be involved.However, after carefully pondering it, I buttress the last one, spending the money on improving public transportation. The reasons are presented below:
There is no denying that improving the public transportation will surely alleviate the pollution given off by enormous cars. If a city has not a developed public transportation, the air will be polluted more heavily. What a dirty environment we will live in! Every day breathing into the air filled with the flour of the gasoline, seeing the sky with the dull color will be the title of our life.So the essence of environment has been realized by an increasingly number of people, to the governments, the protection of environment is especially an undeniable mission.
Another reason I agree with it is that developed public transportation will decrease the frequency of the traffic jams. Perhaps no worse word than “traffic jams” exists, to the businessmen who believe in “Time is money”. Traffic jams not only cost the people time and expense, but also create a bad mood for work. It greatly decreases the efficiency of the whole city. I imagine how can a city whose avenue full of traffic jams develop its economics?
Finally, I want to say that improving the public transportation provide a great number of ways of transportation for most of the poor people who can not afford to buy a car. It is known that our citizens is not made of only people who has the ability to own a car, but the very poor people are also included. I believe that however the technology is improved, the public apparatus should not be ignored, because it serves the people all over the city.
Nevertheless, the private transportation has its own advantages, for instance, it can save a lot of time in some cases, provide some convenience for people. But improving on roads and highways is advantageous only conditionally. Based on the above discussion, I agree with the opinion that the government should spend money on improving public transportation not only it can protect environment and save time for people, but it also can create a convenient environment for all the citizens.